Mongolia Country Information

Mongolia Country Information


Mongolia is situated in the north of Central Asia and covers over 1.5 million square km of territory. It is the largest land-locked country about three times the size of France. It is one of the highest countries in the world and is a country of steppe, desert and high mountains. In the north of Mongolia there are three main mountain ranges, these are known as The Khangai Mountain Range, Khentii Mountain Range and the Khuvsgul Savany mountain range.

Mongolia is the nineteenth largest, and the least densely populated independent country in the world. The country contains very little arable land as much of its area is covered by arid and unproductive steppes with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Its capital and largest city is Ulaanbaatar (pop. 870,000).


Mongolia is a land of all extremes. The weather can be very changeable. Most of the country is hot in the summer (May to mid September) and extremely cold in the winter, with January averages dropping as low as -30ºC (-22ºF). There also is a short rainy season from July to September with a maximum rainful of around 76mm in July. Ulaanbaatar has the coldest average temperature of any national capital in the world.


Khalkh Mongolian is the official language. Kazakh is spoken by 5% of the population. There are also many Mongolian dialects. Many people have Russian as their second language as they were taught this at school. An increasing number of people, especially in the capital, are now also speaking English, German, French, Japanese and Korean.

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